Historical Timeline of Modern Israeli History 1860-2006
- Early Immigration and the Birth of Zionism
- British Mandate
- Formation of the State of Israel
- Wars Against Israel
- Camp David Accords and Peace With Egypt
- First Intidafa
- Oslo Accords and Subsequent Peaceful Period
- Second Intifada and Recent History
1860 - 1904 Theodor Herzl, Father of Zionism, is born.
1866 Jews become a majority in Jerusalem.
Petah Tikvah, first Zionist agricultural settlement, founded by Orthodox Jews.
1882 - 1903
First Aliyah, made up of mostly Eastern European Jews. Started settlements of Rishon Lezion, Rosh Pina and Zichron Yaakov. Also a small number of immigrants from Yemen.
First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basle, Switzerland.
1904 - 1914
Second Aliyah, consisting of mostly Russian and Polish Jews.
First kibbutz, Degania, founded on the shores of the Kinneret.
Tel Aviv founded as Hebrew speaking Jewish city.
HaShomer, the first Jewish self-defense organization is founded to replace Arab guards protecting Jewish settlements.
Britain issues the Balfour Declaration, viewed as an endorsement of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Approximately 40,000 Jews arrived from Russia for the Third Aliyah.
Histadrut (Jewish labor federation) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
Va'ad Leumi (National Council) established to conduct affairs of the Yishuv (pre-state Jewish community of Israel).
First moshav, Nahalal, founded in Jezreel Valley.
Britain grants Mandate for Palestine by League of Nations; Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one-fourth for the Jewish national home.
Fourth Aliyah brings more than 80,000 Jews to Palestine, mostly from Poland.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mt. Scopus.
67 Jews killed by Arab militants in Hebron massacre.
Irgun Zva'i Leumi (Etzel), an underground Jewish militia formed and led by Ze'ev Jabotinsky.
Fifth Aliyah bring nearly 25,000 German Jews to Palestine.
1936 – 1939
Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab militants.
Lohamei Herut Yisrael (Lehi), underground armed resistance movement formed.
Palmach, the striking force of the Haganah, organized.
Arab boycott of companies doing business with Israel.
Establishment of the State of Israel.
1948 – 1949
Israel's War of Independence.
Creation of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
1948 - 1952
Mass immigration from Arab and European countries.
Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria; Jerusalem declared capitol of Israel and divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule; first Knesset elected, led by David Ben-Gurion; Israel admitted to UN as 59th member.
Jordan's King Abdullah assassinated at al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem
Sinai Campaign – fought to put an end to the terrorist incursions into Israel and to remove the Egyptian blockade of Eilat.
Adolf Eichmann captured in Argentina by the Israeli Mossad and brought to Israel for trial.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) established.
National Water Carrier built to bring water from the Kinneret to the semi-arid south.
Six Day War leads to reunification of Jerusalem under Israeli rule.
Khartoum Conference - Arab summit states: No peace or negotiations with Israel.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 - establishes principles to guide the negotiations for future Arab-Israeli peace settlements.
Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel.
Jews return to Gush Etzion for first time since capture by Jordan in 1948; Jews return to Hebron, abandoned after the Hebron massacre in 1929.
Black September - King Hussein of Jordan moves to eject the PLO following power struggles.
Munich Massacre - 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team murdered by Arab terrorists.
Yom Kippur War - surprise attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 - calls upon all parties to cease fighting immediately, implement Resolution 242, and begin peace negotiations.
UN adopts Resolution 3379, equating Zionism with racism.
Israel mounts heroic rescue of hostages taken to Entebbe, Uganda.
After 30 years of Labor Party domination, the Likud Party, led by Menachem Begin takes over.
Israel invades Lebanon (Operation Litani); UN Resolution 425 calls for Israeli withdrawal.
September 17, 1978
Camp David Accords - Set framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel.
March 26, 1979
Peace treaty signed between Israel and Egypt.
Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor shortly before it becomes active.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat assassinated; Succeeded by Hosni Mubarak.
Operation Peace for Galilee leads to the Lebanon War as Israel attempts to drive out the PLO.
Israeli successfully evacuates PLO from Beirut as part of the Lebanon War.
Christian Phalange forces kill hundreds in refugee camps of Sabra and Shatila.
Kahan Commission found Ariel Sharon and others indirectly responsible for massacres of Sabra and Shatila.
Israel begins partial withdrawal from Lebanon.
Hizbollah suicide bomber attacks U.S. marine headquarters in Beirut, killing 241 Americans.
1990 - 1991
Operation Desert Storm/Gulf War - Iraqi missiles fall on Israel as US pushes Iraqi forces out of Kuwait; Palestinians support Saddam Hussein.
Madrid Peace Conference aims for peaceful resolution of the Middle East conflict.
UN rescinds Resolution 3379 equating Zionism with racism.
New Israeli Government led by Yitzhak Rabin of the Labor Party.
Attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires kills 29 and injures hundreds.
October 26, 1994
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
Yitzhak Rabin, Shimon Peres and Yassir Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.
November 4, 1995
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin assassinated at peace rally in Tel Aviv by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir.
First and only election of the Palestinian Council; Arafat becomes president with 90% of the vote.
Violence erupts as a tunnel is opened alongside the Temple Mount, claiming nearly 70 Israeli and Palestinian lives
Israel celebrates 50 years!
Israel withdraws troops unilaterally from Lebanon; UN certifies that Israel is in compliance with Resolution 425.
Birthright Israel formed with the goal of sending thousands of Jewish young adults to Israel on a free trip.
July 11-25, 2000
Camp David Summit - Israeli PM Barak, US President Clinton and Palestinian Chairman Arafat fail to agree on a final peace settlement.
Beginning of Second Intifada. On September 27, 2000 an Israeli soldier is killed at the Netzarim Junction. The next day, September 28, 2000 a Palestinian police officer shoots and kills an Israeli police officer. The latter incident coincides with Ariel Sharon's visit to the Temple Mount, which the Palestinians use as an excuse to begin riots and acts of violence.
Peace talks held at Taba in Sinai Peninsula, but end after Arafat accuses Israel of being "fascist" at international conference.
February 6, 2001
Ariel Sharon becomes Prime Minster by largest margin in Israeli history.
Mitchell Commission issues recommendations for restoration of peace and return to the negotiating table; Prime Minister Sharon announced on May 30, 2001 that Israel accepts the report in full.
September 11, 2001
Terrorist attacks carried out in America by fanatic Islamic al-Qaeda group; US initiates war on terror; Thousands of Palestinians take to the streets to celebrate while most of the world mourns and expresses outrage. Israel declares a day of national mourning.
Israel captures Karine-A ship filled with 50 tons of illegal arms bound for Palestinian Authority.
Israel re-elects Ariel Sharon as Prime Minister of Israel.
Gal Freidman captures Israel's first gold medal in the Olympic Games - in Windsurfing.
Israel withdraws unilaterally from the Gaza Strip, uprooting thousands of Israeli settlers from their homes.
Members of the Military wing of Hamas attack an Israeli border crossing killing 2 soldiers and kidnapping Corporal Gilad Shalit, triggering an international bid for his release.
Terrorist organization Hezbollah attack Israel, killing 8 soldiers and kidnapping 2 others. The attack triggered a monthlong military conflict during which Hezbollah launched 3,970 missiles at Israeli cities and towns, killing 162 Israelis (men, women, children – Arabs and Jews).
4,262 civilians were treated in hospitals for injuries and more than a million citizens have been forced from their homes or are compelled to live in bomb shelters
Sources: Jewish Community Council of Greater Washington, Myths and Facts